The NAD/Sirtuin combination influences a wide range of cellular processes such as aging, rRNA transcription, mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, stress resistance, and insulin sensitivity.
Those participants in the study with the lowest levels of vitamin D in their blood had a substantially higher risk of developing Alzheimer's and all other forms of dementia.
The positive effects of exercise, sleep, and moderate alcohol consumption on our brains and on cognition is real and measurable. The exact mechanisms for these positive effects is less clear, but the connection to the glymphatic system gives us at least some explanation for why they work.
Chronic and even acute inflammation may be responsible for dementia. A look at the research certainly points towards a connection.
This 2017 study from the University of Wisconsin compared the microbiota of 25 people diagnosed with Alzheimer's and 25 age and sex-matched control participants. The Alzheimer's group showed decreased levels of "good" bacteria and increased levels of "bad" bacteria.
Metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are related disorders that damage (among other things) the brain. Both conditions contribute to impaired cognitive function, and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s.
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by belly fat, elevated cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance, increased risk of blood clots and inflammation. Metabolic syndrome, if uncorrected, eventually damages the pancreas leading to a decrease of insulin secretion. “The fall in insulin secretion leading to hyperglicemia occurs as a late phenomenon and, in fact, separates the patients with metabolic syndrome from those with or without overt diabetes.”(R)
Persons with metabolic disorders are at significantly increased risk for cognitive decline and the development of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Those with T2D are at even greater risk.
Into The Weeds
Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by the Beta cells in the pancreas which also serve as glucose level monitors. As the beta cells in the pancreas detect increasing levels of glucose (a simple sugar) they step up insulin production.
When someone is insulin resistance, their cells are unable to take up glucose, and the result is hyperglycemia (an increase in circulating glucose).
An FDA approved drug reduces energy requirements in neurons. Relieved from the pressure of protein production the mitochondria can produce energy for cellular repair processes.
Oxidative Stress damages an important part of our brain cells and leads to cell death. It may be one of the causes of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.